(3) Enemy action. Enemy aircraft or enemy ground fire can result in a
helicopter being disabled, especially while casualties are being loaded.
(4) Friendly action. Artillery barrages and friendly air strikes can interfere
with evacuation attempts.
GENERAL RULES FOR LOADING AND UNLOADING AIR AMBULANCES
Helicopters are used as air ambulances for evacuation in forward areas. Each
air ambulance has a medical specialist to take care of the casualties during evacuation.
Follow the flight crew's instructions for loading, securing, and unloading casualties.
Some general rules pertaining to the litter bearers who load and unload casualties are
a. Remain at least 50 feet from the helicopter until signaled to approach the
helicopter by a member of the helicopter crew.
b. Do not smoke anywhere near the helicopter.
c. Secure loose objects (remove caps, blankets, I.V. tubing, radio antennae, and
so forth) before approaching the helicopter.
d. Approach the aircraft from the front at a 45 angle so you are in full view of
e. Keep a low silhouette when approaching the helicopter.
f. Approach and leave the helicopter quickly, but do not run.
g. Carry the litter parallel to the ground.
h. Avoid the area near the tail rotor of the helicopter. If you must go from one
side of the helicopter to the other, go around the front of the helicopter. Never go
around the rear.
i. When casualties are placed lengthwise (other than a mixed load on an
Iroquois), position the casualties so their heads point forward (toward the front of the
Secure each litter casualty to his litter.
k. Secure each litter to the aircraft.
l. Load the litter casualty which will occupy the upper pan (tier) before loading
the litter casualty occupying the lower pan (tier). This will keep a casualty from
accidentally falling onto another casualty should his litter drop before it is secured.