the Army. Dr. Joseph Lovell became the first Surgeon Genera! of the permanent
AMEDD. Dr. Lovell introduced the keeping of permanent medical records, the recording
of weather, and the first Army medical library (Dr. Lovell's library developed into the
National Library of Medicine). Among the noteworthy names on Army medical rosters
are such well-known ones as William Beaumont, the first to investigate successfully the
physiology of digestion; Johnathan Letterman, famous as the originator of our present
system of evacuation of wounded from the field of battle; George M. Sternberg, who is
known as "the father of American bacteriology"; Walter Reed, renowned as the
conqueror of yellow fever and because of his work in the control of typhoid fever;
William Gorgas, for his application of medical measures to make possible the
construction of the Panama Canal; and Carl Darnall, who discovered a means of
disinfecting water with chlorine. All of these men were Army medical officers.
c. Modern United States Army Military Medicine. The proficiency of the
AMEDD is best attested by its record of achievements. Deaths of the battle wounded
have dropped from nearly 100 percent in colonial days to less than two percent during
the war in Vietnam. The prevention and cure of disease has also followed a pattern of
dramatic improvement. During the Revolutionary War, substantially more men died of
disease than died of battle injury. Today's techniques have reduced wartime Army
deaths from disease to about one man per thousand.
DEFINITIONS OF MILITARY TERMS.
You should become familiar with several terms in order to understand the
organization of the AMEDD and the duties of AMEDD personnel. An explanation of
some of these terms is given below.
a. Command. Command is the authority that a commander in the military
service exercises over his subordinates by virtue of rank and assignment. Command
includes the authority and responsibility for effectively using available resources and for
planning, organizing, directing, coordinating, and controlling the employment of military
forces for the accomplishment of assigned missions. It also includes responsibility for
the health, welfare, morale and discipline of assigned personnel
b. Control. Control is the authority (which may be less than full command) that
is exercised by a commander over part of the activities of subordinate or other
c. Technical Control. Technical control is the specialized or professional
guidance and direction exercised by an authority in technical matters. Technical control
may be exercised by one person over a second person of equal or greater rank. For
example, a physician with the rank of captain can exercise technical control in medical
matters over a nurse who holds the rank of major.
d. Staff Supervision. Staff supervision is the process of advising other staff
officers and individuals subordinate to the commander of the commander's plans and