a. In a young individual, if the brain is injured by a force applied to the cranium,
where will the injury usually be located? Immediately below the location of the applied
b. In an older adult, the injury will usually be located on the opposite side from
the applied force or it may be diverted to the base of the cranium. (para 4-12c)
Enclosing the joint area of a "typical" synovial joint is the joint capsule.
Lubricating the joint is the synovial fluid. Holding the bones together at the joint are the
ligaments and skeletal muscles. Producing motion when properly stimulated are the
The upper part of the vertebral column, the neck region, and associated muscles
provide the head with its various motions. The upper two vertebrae are specifically
The vertebral bodies, the intervertebral discs, and the articular processes of the
vertebrae serve to support the body weight. The sacrum receives the body weight from
above and transfers it to the pelvic bones. (para 4-32)
A semiflexible rod is formed by the vertebrae, the intervertebral discs, and the
associated ligaments. The spinous and transverse processes of the neural arches
serve as attachments for skeletal muscles and act as levers.
The intervertebral discs allow motion to occur between adjacent vertebrae.
Second, they act as shock absorbers.
The curvatures of the vertebral column also function as shock absorbers for the
The construction of the upper member serves to place the grasping hand into as
many positions as possible. This is particularly helpful in grasping food and placing it
End of Lesson 4