b. On either side, below the soft palate, are the palatine tonsils. These are the
tonsils that one sees most frequently in small children.
c. On the back of the root of the tongue are the lingual tonsils.
6-27. "TONSILS" OF THE SMALL INTESTINES
Lymphoid aggregates of varying size are found in the walls of the small
intestines. In the ileum portion, in particular, these aggregates are large enough to be
easily observed and are called Peyer's patches. These might be considered "tonsils" of
the small intestines.
6-28. "TONSILS" OF THE LARGE INTESTINE
At the beginning of the large intestine, at the inferior end of the cecum, is a
structure known as the vermiform appendix. Since the vermiform appendix is actually a
collection of lymphoid tissue, it should be considered the "tonsil" of the large intestine.
6-29. KUPFFER'S CELLS
As we have seen, blood from the absorptive areas of the gut tract is collected
and delivered to the liver by the hepatic venous portal system. As this blood passes
through the sinusoids (channels) of the liver, it is acted upon by cells called Kupffer's
cells. These cells line the sinusoids. Since Kupffer's cells remove harmful substances
from the blood, they are considered part of the reticuloendothelial system.
6-30. THE MAMMARY GLAND
a. When the newborn baby is nursed by its mother, the initial secretion of the
mammary glands is called colostrum. Although this colostrum lacks nutrients, it is
loaded with antibodies. These antibodies provide the infant with its primary protection
for the first 6 months of life.
b. After a few days, the mammary gland produces the natural food for the
human infant. As the infant suckles at the mother's breast, there is a certain amount of
reflux (backward flow) into the milk ducts of the mammary gland. Should the infant
develop an upper respiratory infection, the organisms causing the infection will be
included in this reflux. Generally by the next time the infant suckles, the mammary
gland will have produced the appropriate antibodies. These antibodies are delivered to
the infant for its protection.