paratyphoid, cholera, plague, and others might become prevalent. Flies, rats, and other
vermin would increase and add to the individual's discomfort as well as endanger his
health. Even with the relatively good sanitation maintained in the American Army
camps of World War II, records show a total of nearly 1,000,000 hospital admissions for
filthborne disease during that period.
DISPOSAL OF HUMAN WASTES
a. Human wastes consist primarily of urine and feces. The accumulated
excrement of a group of humans and animals will contain disease-producing organisms.
This filth with its content of disease agents may enter the body in any of the following
(1) From food, water, beverages, and eating utensils which may have been
contaminated by feces, by the fingers of food handlers, or by flies and other vermin.
From hands, when personal hygiene is not practiced.
From close physical contact with unclean persons.
b. The basic principles in the control of filthborne diseases are:
Prompt, thorough, and permanent disposal of urine and feces.
(2) Observance of the practices of personal hygiene, giving particular
attention to cleanliness in finger habits, cleanliness of clothing, and cleanliness of hands
(3) Prevention of the contamination of food, water, beverages, and eating
utensils by fingers, flies and other vermin.
(4) Disinfection by boiling or by chemical means of eating utensils, food, and
water which may have become contaminated.
c. The methods of human waste disposal will vary with the situation. Away from
established bases, military units must adopt methods discussed below:
(1) On the march, the "cat hole" latrine is used. The individual digs a hole
about a foot deep, then replaces and packs the earth over his excreta (figure 6-4).
(2) In temporary bivouacs of 1 to 3 days and in overnight camps, urine and
feces are disposed of by the use of straddle trenches (see para 6-10).