Figure 3-1. Word processing system components.
DATA BASE MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS
a. Management Information Systems. Organizations have always had
management information systems (MIS), that is, methods of gathering, processing, and
distributing data. With the widespread use of computers in the work place, managers
began to recognize the potential for using computers beyond simple reporting. They
realized the computer could be used for generating information to support decision-
making. This application, known as management information, requires some form of
general data storage so that multiple users with varied applications can have access to
the right information at the right time, to make informed decisions.
management information systems: a formal computer information network
that allows multiple users with different applications access to both routine
reports and on-the-spot information for decision-making.
b. Data Base.
(1) Traditional data storage. The traditional way of designing files was for
the programmer to create a file (group of records) for each application. It is meant that
the same data might be found in many different files, creating significant duplication.
Every program using the same file had to describe that file in detail. This design
method was expensive, since duplication meant extra storage space. It was also
inefficient: to change the file in any way meant that every program using that file had to