RECAP-TYPES OF CONSENT
-Inferred consent by circumstances or patient's actions.
-Presumed in a life-threatening.
-Written or oral consent.
INFORMED: -Consent based on knowledge of appropriate information.
Figure 1-8. The preferred form of consent is both express and informed.
1-12. PURPOSE AND FORM OF ROUTINE WRITTEN CONSENT
a. Purpose of Consent. Routine consent is obtained in advance of procedures
involving substantial risk. Such consent is obtained to protect the physician, nurse, and
hospital against claims of unauthorized operations and to guard the patient against
unsanctioned surgery. Written, rather than verbal, consent is the preferred form of
express consent, because there is less room for controversy about proposed treatment
and greater ease in legally substantiating that the patient had, in fact, given consent.
Naturally, there must be apparent knowledge of the proposed procedure. The consent
form doesn't have to describe the procedure in technical terms and in all of its minutiae,
but it has to show that the patient had prior knowledge of the procedure. The signing of
a blank consent form or one giving blanket consent to any and all procedures is of
doubtful value, unless the proposed operation is duly specified. Written consent limits
the surgeon's authority to that which is prescribed in the consent form. The surgeon
cannot go beyond the authorized scope of the operation/procedure unless an
emergency arises which makes additional consent impractical.
b. Proof of Consent. Written consent provides tangible proof of consent. To
be valid, a written consent must be signed, it must specify the procedure being
consented to, and it must show evidence of the fact that the patient has understood the
nature of a procedure, the likely risks involved, and the probable consequences. The
consent form must be dated and witnessed. In an x-ray clinic, the x-ray technologist will
serve as the witness for routine procedures such as an angiogram or an intravenous
pyelogram (IVP). The specific procedures requiring a written consent form will vary
from hospital to hospital. In some military hospitals, routine procedures like an IVP
require a consent form; in others, consent is only required for life-threatening
procedures. In any case, the most satisfactory proof of consent consists of two
integrated consent forms: an admission consent form and a special consent form.