Surveillance of these contacts permits early recognition of disease without restriction of
movement. In the presence of a threatened epidemic, examination of all troops may be
(4) Prompt and adequate treatment of disease sources assists in the
destruction of the infectious agent and subsequent reduction in the reservoir of disease
b. Control Methods Applicable to the Mode of Transmission. Air, food,
water, clothing, bedding, waste, people, and various forms of animal life in the
environment have the capacity to transmit communicable disease agents.
Environmental sanitation is essential for the control of transmitting agents. The
following principles are included in environmental sanitation:
Good personal hygiene by each individual.
Avoidance of overcrowding and close physical contact.
Careful selection and preparation of food.
Maintenance of food service sanitation.
Sanitary waste disposal.
Proper control of disease-carrying insects and animals.
c. Control Methods Applicable to the Susceptible Person. A "susceptible" or
"non-immune" is a person who has little resistance against a particular disease
organism and who, if exposed to this organism, is liable to contract the disease.
Protection of the susceptible requires use of all measures necessary to maintain or
improve general health. The individual who has good mental and physical health has
suspected sources of disease, helps maintain health. A number of immunizing agents
are available for use in conjunction with other measures for the control of some, but not
all, communicable diseases. In some instances, suppressive drugs are available to
decrease the severity of disease.
a. Epidemiology is the study of the distribution and determinants of disease in
human populations. It is the basic science of preventive medicine. Epidemiology is to
preventive medicine what mathematics is to chemistry or physics; it is the practical tool
used to study disease problems in the community. The distribution and determinants of
a disease can be expressed by answering four questions.