followed by a pleasant feeling of warmth. If these danger signals are instantly heeded,
cold injury can be prevented.
d. Clothing. A standard number of layers of clothing cannot be prescribed for
universal wear throughout winter. Flexibility must be provided for local conditions.
Certain basic principles are important, including:
Ventilation of the body during physical activity
Cleanliness and repair of clothing to prevent loss of insulation
Avoidance of constriction produced by snug fitting socks, boots,
underwear, sweaters, jackets, and trousers.
Commanders must ensure their troops have proper clothing and the clothing is worn
(1) Work clothing. When working, remove excess layers of clothing before
perspiration starts so that clothing does not become wet. Avoid wetting clothing or
footgear since moisture causes a dramatic loss of insulating quality.
(2) How to wear clothing and boots. Wear clothing and footgear loose
enough to trap air between layers (the trapped air provides good insulation) and to
permit good circulation of blood to all parts of the body. Avoid tight-fitting uniforms.
(3) Protecting hands and wrists. Keep hands well protected; mittens are
more protective than gloves. Glove or mitten inserts that become wet should be
removed and dried or exchanged for dry inserts as quickly as possible. Avoid lengthy
exposure of bare hands and wrists to conditions that will cause stiffening and reduce
circulation; it takes a long time to recondition the hands to normal use. Do not touch
metal, snow, or other cold objects with bare hands. Do not spill gasoline on skin or
(4) Excess clothing. Remove excess clothing when in a warm enclosure or
in front of a fire to avoid sweating.
(5) Footgear. In all types of footgear, feet perspire more than other parts of
the body. Moisture accumulates in socks and decreases their insulating quality.
Special foot and sock care is essential in cold weather.
Extra socks should be carried by all personnel
Socks damp from perspiration will dry if carried unfolded inside the