The fever, which lasts for 3 or 4 days, may exceed 104F.
Sandfly fever may recur, as one attack confers lasting immunity only
to the specific type of virus causing the illness.
There is no specific treatment.
b. Prevention and Control. Prevention of infection can be accomplished by the
proper wearing of the uniform and application of repellents.
Residual insecticides are effective against sandflies and should be
Inside of buildings.
Sandflies inside of sleeping quarters may also be controlled by use of a
space spray such as pyrethrum.
If possible, an area within a radius of 50 to 100 yards should be sprayed
with a residual spray.
Another group of diseases transmitted by phlebotomine sandflies is
leishmaniasis. Leishmaniasis is infection by any of several species of
flagellate protozoans in the genus Leishmania. Clinical leishmaniasis
may be expressed in three forms: cutaneous, visceral, and mucocutaneous
a. Cutaneous Leishmaniasis. This form of the disease is characterized by
nodular and ulcerating indolent lesions on exposed parts of the body. In parts of Africa
and tropical America, lesions are more ulcerative and may involve mucous membranes,
causing extensive necrosis of the nose, mouth, and pharynx. Secondary infection and
complications may result in death.
(1) Primary locations. The disease is found primarily in India, Pakistan, the
Middle East, Southern Russia, and Africa, in the Old World; and in Mexico, Central
America, and South America in the New World. The infectious agents in the Old World
include Leishmania tropica, L. major, and L. aethiopica. Leishmania braziliensis and L.
mexicana are important agents in the New World.