e. Treatment. A tetracycline antibiotic or chloramphenicol orally in divided
doses usually will render the patient afebrile in about 30 hours.
f. Prevention. Vaccines for use in immunization of personnel against scrub
typhus have not proven satisfactory. Area control of mites is difficult and in many cases
not practical. These guidelines may be followed:
The number of mites in a particular area may be reduced to some extent
by the use of appropriate insecticides.
In permanent or semi permanent camps located in areas where scrub
typhus is prevalent, remove all surrounding growth with bulldozers, burn the collected
debris, and place tents 2 or 3 feet off the ground.
Control of rodents is helpful.
Avoid mite-infested areas, if possible.
If these areas cannot be avoided, personnel should wear the uniform and
the insect repellents.
a. General. Scabies is an infection caused by the entrance and
multiplication of the scabies mite, S. scabiei, in the skin of the host.
Man is the reservoir. Scabies, like typhus, is a disease that
accompanies wars or other conditions where it is hard to keen clean.
b. Transmission. The mites are transmitted by direct contact with infested
individuals or with undergarments or other objects contaminated by them. Adult mites
are most usually found in skin folds, such as webs of the fingers and skin of the external
genitalia, but they will attack any skin area.
c. Development. The female burrows into the skin and deposits eggs in the
burrow. Larvae hatch out in about 4 or 5 days and roam freely over the skin. Within a
few days, the nymph--then the adult--stages are reached, and the fertilized females
burrow into the skin to lay eggs and remain probably throughout their lifetimes.
d. Signs/Symptoms. At first, the host may be unaware of the presence of the
mites, but soon he notices intense itching, which may be so severe as to preclude
sleep. Scratching facilitates spread of the disease and frequently causes secondary
Infection is maintained in mites and rodents, with man an incidental intruder
into the cycle.