protection of human food and water as well as of the operators and other exposed
a. Organic Phosphorous Compounds. This group of pesticides has a wide
range of mammalian toxicity, from a very low order, as in malathion, to a moderate
order, as in diazinon. This group of chemicals inhibits cholinesterase, an enzyme
essential to the proper functioning of the body.
(1) Signs/symptoms. Mammalian poisoning from organic phosphorous
pesticides involves the central nervous system. Symptoms of poisoning may include:
Pinpoint eye pupils.
Difficulty in breathing.
As with poisoning due to chlorinated hydrocarbons, the immediate cause of death is
usually respiratory failure.
(2) Hazard/protection. Because this group of pesticides is used more
frequently than chlorinated hydrocarbons, a greater danger to the applicator is posed.
Maximum use of protective measures must be employed.
b. Carbamates. This group of compounds also inhibits cholinesterase and
exhibits a wide range of toxicity and hazard. The safety requirements for the applicator
are identical with those for the organic phosphates.
c. Rodenticides. The materials in this group are inorganic and organic
chemicals but the uses and modes of action are sufficient to justify consideration of
rodenticides as a separate group.
The organic chemical group has been the cause of most human
poisoning associated with rodenticides.
The anticoagulants, on the other hand are widely used in rodent control
programs today with a high degree of safety. One of the early members of this group is
known as "Warfarin," which is being supplemented in the military supply system by
other anticoagulants in water-soluble formulations.
In addition to causing capillary damage, these chemicals interfere with
the formation of prothrombin, resulting in extensive internal hemorrhages.