c. Transmission. Transmission is by:
Direct contact with an infected person, fomites freshly contaminated with
infectious respiratory discharges
Possibly by droplet nuclei
d. Signs/Symptoms. Fever, chills, body aches, and malaise or prostration is
usual, with upper respiratory symptoms less prominent and appearing later
e. Diagnosis. Diagnosis is confirmed by finding the virus in throat washings
and sera of patients and convalescents.
f. Treatment. There is no specific treatment. To minimize secondary infection,
bed rest, preferably in isolation, is essential. Return to duty should be delayed until
recovery is complete and chance of secondary infection is significantly reduced. In the
military setting, this may involve up to 30 days absence from duty.
g. Prevention. Good patient hygiene and sickroom sanitation should be
maintained. Prevention of influenza is difficult for four reasons:
The incubation period is short.
Prevalent strains of viruses tend to be replaced by others having different
There is a large variety of these viruses.
The disease occurs in cycles; consequently, the vaccines that have been
developed usually must be changed each year based on responsible forecasts of the
agent or agents likely to be active in the forthcoming season.
VIRUS DISEASES PRESENTING NON-RESPIRATORY SYMPTOMS: MUMPS
a. In Military Personnel. Outbreaks of mumps are both frequent and serious
in-groups of young persons of military age.
In the United States Army during World War II, more than 100,000 cases
of mumps were diagnosed.
About 30 percent of these were complicated by orchitis (inflammation of
the testes), which may be accompanied by psychological stress.
b. Signs/Symptoms. Characteristically in mumps, fever is accompanied by
swelling and tenderness of one or more of the salivary glands.