(1) A covered metal drum may be sunk into the ground for use as a box.
Both ends of the drum are removed and a flyproof seat cover with a self-closing lid is
made to fit the top of the drum. If a drum is not available, a flyproof wooden box that is
18 inches in height may be constructed instead.
(2) This type of latrine is satisfactory for small units if the necessary
mechanical equipment for boring the hole is available.
e. Chemical Latrines.
(1) Construction. These latrines or toilets may be used in the field when
government or local policy permits. Chemical latrines are self-contained; meaning that
they come equipped with a holding tank containing chemical additives to aid in the
decomposition of the waste and control of the odor. The surgeon, preventive medicine
personnel, or other AMEDD personnel establish the number of facilities required for the
(2) Sanitation. The latrines are to be cleaned daily. The contents are
pumped as frequently as needed and disposed of by way of the conventional sanitary
waste water system.
LATRINES USED IN HIGH WATER TABLE AREAS
Some of the latrines discussed in previous paragraphs are limited to areas in
which the ground water table is deep enough to permit construction and use of the
latrines without contaminating the ground water or having water standing in the latrine
pit. For practical considerations, they are also limited to areas in which there is no
impervious rock formation near the surface. In situations where the presence of a high
water table or rock formation near the ground surface prevents the digging of a pit of
adequate depth, several alternate methods are available.
a. Mound Latrine. A dirt mound makes it possible to build a deep pit latrine and
still not have the pit extending into the water or the rock (see Figure 3-5).
(1) Construction. A mound of earth having a top at least 6 feet wide and 12
feet long should be constructed so that a 4-seat latrine box can be placed on its top.
For 100 males, construction of one standard 4-seater is required (100 males x .04 = 4
males; 4 males/4 males per box = 1 box). For 100 females, construction of two
standard 4-seaters is required (100 females x .06 = 6 females; 6 females/4 females per
box =1.5 boxes; therefore, two 4-seaters are needed to accommodate 6 females at the
same time). The mound should be high enough to meet the pit's requirement for depth,
allowing 1 foot from the base of the pit to the water or the rock level. Before the mound
is built, the area where it is to be placed should be broken up or plowed in order to aid
seepage of liquids from the pit. If timber or wood is available, a crib of desired height is
then built to enclose the pit and to help support the latrine box. The mound is then built
and compacted in successive 1-foot layers until the top of the crib is reached as shown