The characteristic x-ray is produced as a result of the impinging electron:
Slowing down near the target nucleus.
Knocking an electron from orbit in the target atom.
Striking the target nucleus.
Accelerating near the target nucleus.
The x-ray beam may be "hardened" by using:
The amount of material required to reduce the exposure rate from an x-ray beam
by one-half is the:
The first protection standard was based on:
An amount of radiation necessary to cause nausea.
An amount of radiation necessary to cause a skin erythema.
An amount of radiation necessary to darken a photographic film.
An amount of radiation necessary to saturate an ion chamber.