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Lesson 4: Periodontic, Endodontic and Prosthodontic Instruments. - Dental Instrument Setups

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LESSON 4
PERIODONTIC, ENDODONTIC, AND PROSTHODONTIC INSTRUMENTS
Section I. PERIODONTIC INSTRUMENTS
4-1.
INTRODUCTION
a. Periodontics. Periodontics is the specialty of dentistry providing prevention,
diagnosis, and treatment of diseases and abnormalities involving the tissue structures
that surround and support the teeth. These structures are the periodontal ligament,
gingiva, cementum, and alveolar bone. The signs and symptoms of periodontal disease
are loose teeth, sensitivity to pressure, enlarged gingival tissues, bleeding gingival tissues
when using a toothbrush, and halitosis (bad breath). Periodontal disease often begins as
gingival inflammation in children and young adults. Without early recognition of the
disease and early adequate treatment, the disease progresses to an advanced disease
status with little inconvenience or pain to the patient. In the advanced status, the teeth
become sore to pressure, are demonstrably loose, and develop painful conditions such
as acute periodontitis and periodontal abscess. After the age of 35, periodontal disease
is the major cause for the loss of natural teeth. Thus, it is a major dental problem
developing from a lack of early recognition and treatment.
b. The Dental Specialist as an Assistant in Periodontics. General clinical
duties apply to the dental specialist assigned to the periodontic service. In addition,
depending on the ability of the dental specialist and the techniques and treatment
procedures of the dental officer, the dental specialist will be used as a special surgical
procedure assistant and oral hygiene technician and in other activities peculiar to
periodontics. The dental specialist will be expected to do scaling, root planing, dental
plaque control, occlusal adjustment, and basic examination. The general background,
basis for prevention, and treatment in periodontics differ from most other types of dental
treatment in that there is less mechanical technique and more emphasis on restoring
function and preserving viable tissues that are part of the whole living system of the
human body.
4-2.
INSTRUMENTS
a. General. Instruments used in the treatment of periodontal diseases are
designed for one or more of the following objectives: determining soft tissue pocket
depth; surgically incising and removing soft tissue to eliminate soft tissue pockets;
removing calculus and debris from roots of teeth; removing soft tissue from periodontal
pockets; and removing, reshaping, or contouring hard structure (alveolar bone). Other
instruments (such as scalpels, needle holders, hemostats, and suture needles) used in
oral surgery are employed routinely in periodontal surgical procedures. Medical Supply
Catalog nomenclature is included in capital letters following the name ordinarily used to
designate each instrument.
MD0503
4-2



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