1-51. MONILIASIS OR CANDIDIASIS
Moniliasis of the oral mucosa membranes, also called candidiasis or thrush, is a
surface infection resulting from a yeast-like fungus, Candida albicans. The lesion
(figure 1-14) appears as deposits of pearly-white, roughened-surface plaque, which
leaves a raw, red, painful surface when scraped off. Its treatment involves prescribing
antifungal drugs. When natural resistance is lowered, this infection may appear and
grow. Because it takes advantage of such conditions, moniliasis is known as an
opportunistic infection. It may affect debilitated adult patients, infants, or patients
receiving prolonged therapy with antibiotics or corticosteroids. In addition, moniliasis
may be indicative of AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome). AIDS results from
the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).
NOTE: In this example, the yeast-like, white patches of the fungus Candida albicans
can be clearly identified on the roof of the mouth.
Figure 1-14. Moniliasis.
1-52. DENTURE IRRITATION
Localized areas of inflammation associated with dentures can result from a
number of factors. They may result from occlusal disharmonies, damage to the denture
base or metal framework because of careless handling, or certain tissue changes. The
mucous membrane beneath the denture becomes inflamed. If it is not remedied, this
chronic irritation may result in hyperplasia of the oral mucosa. Hyperplasia (an
increased growth of normal cells) caused by irritation at the border of the denture takes
the form of long folds of excess tissue along the denture border. These folds are called
epulis fissuratum. Irritation of the palate may result in the development of numerous
papillae, a condition called inflammatory papillary hyperplasia. Treatment consists of
reduction of the inflammatory component and surgical removal of any hyperplastic
tissue. Prostheses correction is necessary to prevent recurrence.