b. Cause. Periodontitis is caused by the local irritants of bacterial plaque. By
making plaque more difficult to remove, calculus deposits, poor fitting crowns, bands,
and restorations contribute to developing periodontitis. Poor diet, endocrine
disturbance, and systemic disease may serve as predisposing and contributing factors.
c. Effect. In periodontitis, the periodontal ligament, cementum, alveolar bone,
and gingival tissues are destroyed. With this loss of support, the teeth may become
loose. In this disease, the periodontal ligament separates from the cementum and a
pocket forms between the tooth and the gingival tissue. The pocket becomes an
entrance for bacteria. Inflammation follows. Alveolar bone is resorbed and the space
created is partly filled with granulation tissue. With loss of bony support, the teeth may
become loose. In periodontitis, the gingival tissue may take on a bluish appearance.
Bad taste, bleeding gums, and hypersensitive teeth are common symptoms. Treatment
includes management of the disease by the dental officer and vigorous home care by
1-37. LOCALIZED JUVENILE PERIODONTITIS
This disease is in fact a series of diseases in teens and young adults caused by
bacteria and systemic disorder. It progresses so rapidly that conventional therapy is
1-38. PERIODONTAL ABSCESS
A periodontal abscess is most frequently a sequel of untreated periodontal
disease. It is a collection of pus along the sides of the tooth that may or may not involve
the apical area. It can be caused by a foreign body such as calculus, a toothpick, or
popcorn hull becoming lodged in the periodontal ligament or beneath the free margin of
the gingival tissue. The irritant causes an inflammatory response and, because of
minimal drainage through the periodontal sulcus, pus forms. A periodontal abscess
may drain either through periodontal pockets or through the gingiva into the mouth. The
most common signs and symptoms are swelling, dull pain in adjacent periodontal
tissues, soreness of the gingiva, and shiny mucous membrane over the area.
Establishment of drainage tends to reduce the acute symptoms.
1-39. NECROTIZING ULCERATIVE GINGIVITIS (NUG)
Necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis (NUG), commonly called "trench mouth" or
Vincent's disease, is a bacterial infection. It is usually associated with poor oral
hygiene, smoking, and/or psychological stress, but may be seen in patients with good