refrigeration, running water, fly control, and so forth), milk may be served from approved
bulk dispensers. All unused milk left in an opened container must be disposed of as
SALADS, HASH, AND CHOPPED MEATS
Hash and chopped meats are foods that are ideal for the growth of bacteria.
Salads containing eggs or milk also furnish excellent conditions for the growth of
bacteria. Whenever possible, touching food with the hands should be avoided. It is
easy to learn to handle food with utensils (spoons, forks, tongs, or other suitable
devices) and so avoid direct contact with the food. Food service personnel who prepare
salads should take special care to cleanse their hands with soap and hot water before
they handle the ingredients. Foods that readily support bacterial growth (salad
dressings, ham and chicken salads, hash, cream fillings, cream sauces, custards, and
so forth) should be prepared as shortly before serving time as possible and never more
than three hours before serving. Foods of this nature must not be held over from one
meal to another or left standing at room temperature. Sandwich fillings for box lunches
should not be made with spreads containing ground meat or chopped egg.
3-10. COOKING TEMPERATURES
The best safeguards against getting sick from food are thorough cooking and
immediate serving. With the exception of those foods that contain chemical poisons or
staphylococcus toxin, food can usually be made safe to eat by cooking the food at the
proper temperature for the proper length of time. Recommended cooking times and
temperatures for meat products are given below.
a. Beef. Cooking time and temperature for meat products must ensure that the
center of the meat is adequately cooked. For beef, this can be achieved by roasting it
at an oven temperature of 325o F until a meat thermometer inserted into the middle of
the thickest part of the meat registers 140o F (rare), 160o F (medium), or 170o F (well
b. Pork. Pork should be roasted at an oven temperature of 350o F until a meat
thermometer inserted into the thickest part of the meat registers at least 150o F. (An
internal temperature of 170o F is recommended for fresh pork to provide a uniformly
cooked product.) The cooking temperature for pork is especially important because of
the danger of trichinosis, a disease caused by tiny parasitic worms. Adequate cooking
of pork products will destroy any of these parasites present in the meat.
c. Poultry. Poultry and dressing must be cooked throughout to a minimum
internal temperature of 165o F with no interruption of the initial cooking process. All
dressings are cooked separately from the meat--poultry is not to be stuffed.