a. Hard Ticks. Hard ticks are known to transmit several diseases such as
Rocky Mountain spotted fever and other typhus-like fevers, tularemia (rabbit fever),
Q fever, and certain viral diseases. Some types of hard ticks can cause tick paralysis.
This condition results after a female hard tick has remained attached to the base of a
person's neck or to the back of his head for several days. It is most likely to occur when
the tick attaches near the hairlines or in the hair, thus making detection of it difficult.
When tick bites are numerous, the skin may become badly inflamed and infected.
b. Soft Ticks. Several species of soft ticks become infected with disease
organisms when they feed on infected animals. They can then transmit the disease
when they bite humans to feed on their blood. Both the hard and the soft ticks can pass
disease-causing organisms to their offspring through their eggs. Thus, ticks may
already be infected when they hatch.
TICK CONTROL METHODS
a. Environmental Control. Controlling vast areas of tick-infested land is a
major operation accomplished by either a preventive medicine unit or other trained
personnel. A certain degree of control can be accomplished by clearing away brush
and vegetation and keeping animals out of the area. Ticks in buildings can be
controlled by spraying or dusting insecticides on walls and in cracks and corners.
Insecticides may also be used to spray or dust the vegetation and the ground in tick-
infested areas. Effective control of ticks is greatly dependent upon knowledge of the
b. Individual Protective Measures. Impregnating clothing with an insecticide
clothing repellent gives excellent protection against ticks. Insect repellent (DEET)
applied to the exposed skin provides additional protection. The bottoms of trousers
should be tucked inside the boots without blousing rubbers.
c. Removal of Ticks. It may require some time for ticks to infect a person after
they attach to his body. Persons in tick-infested areas should examine themselves and
each other at least every two hours for the presence of ticks. This will often prevent the
transmission of disease. In the removal of an imbedded tick, care must be taken not to
crush it or to leave its mouthparts imbedded in the skin. A tick can be removed most
effectively by using small forceps to grasp it as close to its mouthparts as possible and
then carefully pulling it off. The tick should not be grasped by its abdomen since the
pressure may cause disease organisms to be injected into the person. After a tick is
removed, it should be killed. Treat the bitten area with a suitable antiseptic.