g. Brevity, Immediacy, Centrality, Expectancy, Proximity, Simplicity (BICEPS).
BICEPS is an acronym used for the principles of treatment for soldiers
suffering from combat stress reactions.
TYPES OF STRESS IN COMBAT
Some of the types of stress in combat are listed below.
a. Physical/psychological strain. This lowers the overload tolerance, but does
not produce battle fatigue unless fear and/or internal conflicts are added (for example,
sleeping and eating are irregular in quantity, quality, and timing; excessive physical
b. Fear/anxiety of pain, mutilation, death.
c. Fear of failure/disgrace.
d. Grief, rage (loss of friends, hatred of enemy, incompetent leadership, and so forth).
e. Ethical limits (killing, firing at noncombatants, leaving patients to die, and so forth).
The soldier may feel guilty of his own rage or acts.
f. Internal conflict (survival vs. mission, loyalty, and ideals [leaving wounded
friend behind, short timer, and so forth].
g. Boredom, restriction, loss of privacy, and so forth.
h. Home front worries, disappointment.
COMBAT STRESS REACTION--BATTLE FATIGUE
a. Battle Fatigue. Battle fatigue is the temporary emotional disorder, of varying
severity, experienced by previously normal soldiers as a reaction to overwhelming or
cumulative stress of combat.
Victims will include combat soldiers as well as support soldiers.
Normal reaction to abnormal situation.
b. Types of Battle Fatigue.
(1) Mild. A soldier with mild battle fatigue can be rested and restored in own
unit or its closest logistical support element.