Figure 1-1. Blood products. (Left--whole blood. Right--plasma.)
(2) Crystalloids. Crystalloids are solutions that do not contain protein or
other large molecules. Sodium (Na+) is the primary osmotic agent. These fluids do not
remain in the vascular spaces very long. Examples include:
(a) Normal saline (NS) (0.9 percent sodium chloride [NaCl] solution).
(b) Ringer's lactate (RL).
b. Fluid Distribution. Fluids are distributed throughout the body in several
different spaces and the body continually works to maintain equilibrium within these
spaces. The average adult male has approximately 42 liters of fluid within the body.
The fluid is distributed as follows:
(1) Intracellular space. Fluids within the cells amount to about two-thirds of
the body's weight.
(2) Extracellular space. Fluids outside the cells amount to about one-third
of the body's weight.
(a) Interstitial space. About eighty percent of the extracellular fluid is in
spaces between tissues.
(b) Vascular space. About twenty percent of the extracellular fluid is in
the circulatory system.