c. Distended neck veins.
d. Bulging eyes.
e. Pulmonary contusion.
f. Severe respiratory distress.
3-20. TREAT A CASUALTY WITH A COMPRESSION INJURY
Establish and maintain an open airway. Assist with the casualty's respirations,
if needed. Administer oxygen if it is available. Observe the casualty for signs and
symptoms of tension pneumothorax and hemothorax. Evacuate the casualty as soon
3-21. CHECK FOR A BACK INJURY
Check for injury to the back of the chest. The most important is injury to the
spine. Other injuries include lacerations, muscle strain, and fractures of bones
associated with the chest (such as the scapula).
3-22. TREAT A CASUALTY WITH A BACK INJURY
Maintain an open airway and assist with respirations, if needed. Keep the
casualty as still as possible if a spinal injury is suspected. Procedures for treating a
suspected injury to the spine are covered in Subcourse MD0533, Treating Fractures in
3-23. CHECK FOR TENSION PNEUMOTHORAX AND HEMOTHORAX
a. Tension Pneumothorax. Tension pneumothorax is a condition in which air
enters the pleural cavity outside the lung and becomes trapped. As more and more air
becomes trapped, the increased pressure causes the lung in the affected pleural
cavity to collapse. Tension pneumothorax can be caused by an open chest wound
(Section II), but it can also result from a closed chest injury. Figure 3-11 shows
tension pneumothorax resulting from air that has escaped from a lung injured by
floating rib segments. Tension pneumothorax can also result from damage to the
bronchi (air tubes) leading to the lungs. Air in the pleural cavity that results from
disease rather than trauma to the lung is referred to as spontaneous pneumothorax.
Complete collapse of the lung may be followed by tracheal deviation and mediastinal
shift. Signs of tension pneumothorax include increased difficulty in breathing,
shortness of breath, absent or diminished breath sounds on the effected side,
subcutaneous emphysema, distended neck veins, bulging chest tissues, weak pulse,