(3) Do not use a hard blast of water to flush the burned area. High water
pressure can increase the damage to the tissues.
(4) Some chemicals have a delayed reaction. Flush even though the
casualty does not feel pain. Do not stop flushing just because the casualty's pain goes
b. Dry Chemicals. If the chemical is in a dry form (such as lime), use a clean,
dry cloth to brush off loose particles of the dry chemical. Take care to avoid getting
the particles on your body. After brushing off the particles, flush the area with as much
water or other nonflammable liquid as possible.
If a large amount of water or other nonflammable liquid is not available,
do not flush the area until the casualty has been moved to an area
where sufficient water is available. Applying a small amount of water to
a dry chemical may cause a chemical reaction which transforms the
dry chemical into an active, burning substance. Do not attempt to
irrigate the area unless you can continue flushing for at least 20
c. White Phosphorus. White phosphorus becomes active (burns) when
exposed to air. It sticks to the skin and continues to burn until it is deprived of air.
White phosphorus usually causes multiple, deep second- and third-degree burns.
(1) Quickly smother the flame with a non-petroleum liquid such as water,
mud, or urine. If possible, submerge the entire area in water.
(2) If possible, remove the particles of white phosphorus from the skin.
This can be accomplished by brushing the skin with a wet cloth and/or using forceps, a
knife, or similar instrument to remove the particles.
(3) If the particles cannot be removed, cover the area with wet cloth or
mud. The wet material or mud will keep air from getting to the white phosphorus and,
thus, keep the particles from beginning to burn again.
Do not use grease or oil on a white phosphorus burn. Grease or oil
may cause the body to absorb the poisonous white phosphorus
d. Radioactive Fallout. Burns caused by radioactive particles sticking to the
casualty's skin are treated by brushing the particles from the casualty and flushing the
skin with water. Take care to keep the radioactive particles and contaminated water
from coming into contact with your skin and clothing.