TREATING HYPOVOLEMIC SHOCK
IDENTIFY THE CAUSES OF SHOCK
Shock exists when the circulatory system fails to provide sufficient circulation to
parts of the body. Organs and tissues that do not receive sufficient fluids (blood and
plasma) fail to perform due to inadequate cellular perfusion. There are several types
of shock. Any significant injury causes some degree of shock. It may be slight and
unnoticed, lasting only a moment, or it may be severe enough to cause death.
a. Hypovolemic Shock. Hypovolemic shock results when there is a decrease
in the volume of circulating fluids in the body. Hypovolemic shock is usually caused by
severe bleeding (hemorrhaging) or severe loss of body fluids (dehydration) due to heat
injury, severe burns (second- and third-degree burns on 20 percent or more of the
body surface area), vomiting, diarrhea, or excessive sweating.
b. Other Types of Shock. The following are types of shock that also result in
inadequate cellular profusion.
Metabolic shock. Metabolic shock is caused by a severe fluid loss due
to an illness.
(2) Neurogenic shock. Neurogenic shock is caused by dilation of the blood
vessels due to loss of nervous control over the vascular system. There is not enough
blood and plasma in the circulatory system to fill the vessels even though no
circulatory fluids have been lost.
(3) Psychogenic shock. Psychogenic shock (fainting) is caused by a
temporary dilation of the blood vessels which results in a decreased blood supply to
(4) Cardiogenic shock. Cardiogenic shock is caused by a failure of the
heart to pump sufficient blood.
(5) Septic shock. Septic shock is caused by a severe infection that attacks
the blood vessels and causes them to loose circulating fluid.
(6) Respiratory shock. Respiratory shock is due to an insufficient amount
of oxygen in the blood.