b. Hematomas. A hematoma (blood tumor) is a localized collection of blood,
often clotted, in the damaged tissues due to a break in the wall of a blood vessel. A
hematoma is more serious than a contusion. Normal hematomas can contain more
than 50 milliliters of blood and can often be palpated (felt with the fingers or hand).
Severe hematomas, such as the internal bleeding associated with a fractured femur or
pelvis, can contain a liter or more of blood and result in hypovolemic shock.
TREAT CLOSED SOFT TISSUE INJURIES
Minor bruises require no special care. If the injury is more severe, take
measures to protect the injured area. If the injury is on an extremity, apply the
following measures. The mnemonic device ICES (ice, compression, elevation, splint)
may help you to remember the treatment procedures.
a. Ice. Apply cold (ice bag or chemical pack) to help reduce swelling and pain.
Do not apply ice directly to the skin. Applying ice directly to the skin
could result in cold injury damage to the skin and underlying tissues.
Use an ice bag or wrap the ice in cloth material to protect the casualty's
b. Compression. Apply localized compression (elastic roller bandage or
pneumatic counterpressure device) to help control bleeding and swelling. An elastic
bandage can be applied to the injured limb using the techniques described in
c. Elevation. Elevate the affected body part. If a fracture is involved, apply a
splint before elevating the limb.
d. Splint. Apply a splint to the affected limb. If a fracture is involved, applying
a splint is a must. Even if the limb does not have a fractured bone, applying a splint to
the limb may help to reduce pain and prevent further injury. A pneumatic (air
inflatable) splint can be applied to an extremity. The device will immobilize the