(2) Concept formation. The formation of concepts is the end product of our
observations. These concepts (or ideas) form the network by "truths" which color our
perceptions. When enough examples of anything have been observed, a concept is
formed in our minds.
(a) Concrete concepts. We have the concept of "chair" which includes
the various types and styles of seating equipment for one person. Our concept of
"lamp" can mean an incandescent, fluorescent, kerosene, or any other kind of
equipment that gives off light. Both of these examples are concrete concepts. They
have to do with those things we can see, hear, feel, taste, or smell.
(b) Abstract concepts. The mind also forms concepts that are abstract.
Abstractions cannot be experienced by the senses directly, so they must be inferred
from people's actions. Love, honor, hope, and patriotism are all abstract concepts.
These and many other abstract concepts must be inferred from our actions and those of
(3) Insight. Insight has been defined as the sudden appearance of a
solution for a problem. It is often considered in contrast to trial and error. This is not
strictly true because trial and error is mainly a physical process, and insight is a
frequently misunderstood mental process. Insight has ties to previous learning. It is a
method for problem solving. After trying unsuccessful methods to solve a problem, a
person suddenly "sees" the correct solution. Frequently, the correct solution seemingly
has no relationship to the incorrect methods attempted earlier. Actually, this sudden
discovery of the correct solution is rooted in learning that may have been mastered
much earlier. Requirements for the development of human insight are:
(a) An ability to generalize previous learning to widely different
(c) The availability of a mental storehouse of previously mastered
knowledge that includes those elements required to "see" the correct solution. Insight
applies only to problem solving. It does not apply to such situations as the learning of
new vocabulary, learning precise procedures, or any memorization task.
PROCESS OF INSTRUCTION
The instructional process is the basic procedure for teaching either a single
lesson objective or an entire phase of a subject. This is a three-stage process of
presentation and evaluation by the instructor and application by the soldier. Using
these stages as a guide, the instructor applies specific instructional methods and
techniques to achieve the most effective teaching-learning situation.