a. Eventually, the lungs become permanently inflated because they have lost
their elasticity. The size of a person's chest increases to adjust to the new larger size of
the permanently inflated lungs. At this point, the person has to work voluntarily to
exhale. The oxygen in the blood is a little lowered, and the person becomes breathless
from any mild exercise in which the blood cells need more oxygen. As the disease
progresses, unusually high amounts of carbon dioxide dissolve in the plasma producing
acid conditions that are toxic to brain cells. This causes the body's inspiration area to
become less active which causes the respiration rate to slow down.
b. A number of factors can cause emphysema.
(1) A tendency in some families for chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases
such as silicosis (a disease caused by inhaling stone, sand, or flint dust into the lungs)
or fibrosis (formation of fibers in the lungs).
A history of chronic bronchial obstruction such as bronchitis or asthma.
Cigarette smoking is thought to be a major cause.
The result of a penetrating wound of the chest wall.
a. The signs and symptoms of emphysema are listed as follows:
Shortness of breath.
Pursed lip breathing (pink puffers).
Barrel chest appearance.
Expectoration with small quantities of mucus.
Dyspnea (difficult or labored breathing) on exertion.
Hyperresonant to percussion.
Appears thin and wasted (weight loss).
(10) Difficulty in hearing sounds in body while listening to lungs with