(g) Tissue around or under both eyes of the patient are discolored
("black eye(s)" or "raccoon eyes"). This discoloration may appear hours after the injury.
(h) One of the patient's eyes appears to be sunken.
The patient has bleeding from the ears and/or the nose.
Clear fluid is flowing from the patient's ears and/or nose.
(a) Follow these general procedures:
1 Assure/maintain an open airway.
2 Resuscitate, if necessary.
3 Keep the patient at rest; do not let him move around.
4 Control bleeding.
5 Monitor the patient's vital signs.
6 Dress and bandage any open wounds.
7 Try to keep a conscious patient alert by talking to him. Ask him
questions to force him to concentrate.
1 DO NOT put pressure on an obvious skull fracture.
2 DO NOT try to remove penetrating objects. Leave them in
place and transport the patient.
(c) If the patient has no hematoma, infection, or cerebral spinal fluid
leak, a skull fracture presents no danger at this time.
c. Concussion. A concussion is a mild state of stupor or temporary
unconsciousness caused by a blow to the head. In this condition, there is no laceration
or bleeding in the brain. There is no significant injury to the brain itself.