b. Vascular Disorders. Vascular disorders include stroke, cerebrovascular
accidents (CVA), and cerebral apoplexy. Vascular disorders of the central nervous
system are defined as a sudden loss of brain function or a disruption of blood flow to the
brain. This loss or disruption may result in impairment in motor, sensory, or mental
Causes of vascular disorders. Included are the following:
Thrombosis--formation or presence of a blood clot.
(b) Embolism--sudden obstruction of a blood vessel caused by the
movement of a blood clot or other plug (for example, air).
Hemorrhage--bleeding, especially profuse.
(d) Compression--pressing together of a blood vessel by an external
(e) Vasospasm--spasm or contraction of a blood vessel.
(2) Signs/symptoms of vascular disorders. The dysfunction may be major
or minor, and may be temporary or permanent. Here are some early warning signs:
(a) Sudden, temporary weakness or numbness of the face, arm, and
(b) Temporary difficulty with speech (aphasia).
Brief dimness or loss of vision, especially in one eye.
(d) Double vision (diplopia).
(e) Brief dizziness or unsteadiness.
Loss of memory.
Change in personality or change in mental ability.
Motor disability signs of vascular disorders.
(a) Hemiplegia--paralysis of the entire side of the body opposite to the
injured side of the head.
Hemiplesis--partial paralysis; muscle weakness.