Section I. HEAD INJURIES
Trauma can cause injuries to the bones of the face. Such trauma is usually the
result of industrial accidents, falls, sporting accidents, and fist fights. Automobile
accidents, however, are the most common cause of injuries to facial bones. Most major
injuries of this type are dealt with by a specialist, but initial treatment is of vital
importance to the patient. Suspect the possibility of a facial fracture if you note the
a. Blood in the airway.
b. Facial deformity.
c. Black eye(s) discoloration below the eye(s).
d. Lower jaw which is swollen/poor jaw function.
e. Loose or broken teeth/knocked out teeth/broken dentures.
f. Other indications of a severe blow to the face.
a. Blowout Fracture.
(1) Description. A blowout fracture is a fracture in the orbital floor, the
bottom of the eye socket. The orbit is the cavity in the skull which contains the eyeball.
Commonly, the orbit is called the eye socket. The bottom or floor of the orbit is thin
bone, and a blow by a blunt object such as a fist or a baseball bat can fracture or break
the bone on the bottom of the eye socket. A blowout fracture is usually not associated
with other facial fractures such as fractures of the orbital rim or other facial bones.
When the bone at the bottom of the eye socket is broken, the eye drops down out of
position causing eye function problems.
Signs/symptoms. Included are the following: