Figure 1-4. The adrenal glands.
b. Hormones. Glucocorticoids, mineralocorticoids, and small amounts of sex
hormones are made and secreted by the adrenal cortex. All together, these hormones
are called corticosteroids. Two neurohormones are produced by the adrenal medulla:
epinephrine and norepinephrine.
(1) Glucocorticoids. The glucocorticoids secreted by the adrenal cortex aid
protein, fat, and carbohydrate metabolism to help the body meet stress conditions.
Glucocorticoids accelerate the breakdown of protein to amino acid which is changed to
glucose in the liver. In this way, the amount of serum glucose in the body is increased.
Glucocorticoids also help the body withstand stress from anxiety or sever injury
because the hormone has an anti-inflammatory effect. Catecholamine hormones, a
type of glucocorticoid hormone, are commonly known as the "fight or flight" hormones
because these hormones give the body extra energy in stressful situations.