diuretics). Stress--psychological or emotional--is considered a risk factor regardless of
what causes the stress (surgery, infection, pregnancy, the environment, and so forth).
TYPES OF DIABETES MELLITUS
There are two main types of diabetes mellitus: insulin-dependent and non-
insulin-dependent. There are other less common types of diabetes.
a. Insulin-Dependent (Type I) Diabetes (IDDM). This type usually occurs
before age 30 but may occur at any age. It used to be called juvenile-onset diabetes
because it occurred most often in children and young adults. Research revealed that
IDDM could occur at any age; therefore, the name was changed. The patient is usually
thin, needs insulin medication, and must adjust his diet to control the disease. Typically,
the pancreas either stops making insulin or does not make enough insulin. Insulin must
be injected every day to help turn food into energy for survival.
b. Noninsulin-Dependent (Type II) Diabetes NIDDM). This type of diabetes is
the one which usually affects people who are over 40 and overweight. Often diet and
exercise can control this form of diabetes. Here the pancreas produces some insulin,
but the body is unable to use that insulin effectively. Sometimes insulin medication is
c. Other Types of Diabetes.
(1) Gestational diabetes. Pregnant women sometimes have this type of
diabetes during pregnancy. After the birth of the baby, the disease usually disappears.
(2) Secondary diabetes. Damage to the pancreas from chemicals,
particular medicines, or pancreatic disease such as cancer can cause diabetes. In this
case, diabetes is secondary, the result of another disease.
(3) Impaired glucose tolerance. This diagnosis means that the level of
sugar in the blood falls between a normal level and a diabetic level. Such people have
an increased risk of developing diabetes. Terms previously used for this condition
include latent diabetes, chemical diabetes, and borderline diabetes. Impaired glucose
tolerance is no longer considered a form of diabetes.
SIGNS/SYMPTOMS OF DIABETES MELLITUS
Listed are signs and symptoms which are typical of the patient who has diabetes.
Some individuals who have noninsulin-dependent diabetes have symptoms so mild that
neither the person nor anyone else notices.
a. Signs/Symptoms of Insulin-Dependent Diabetes. These signs and
symptoms usually occur suddenly: