Observing soldiers frequently for early signs and symptoms of cold
(2) Daily check of soldiers for good personal hygiene, especially when a
change of socks at appropriate intervals, along with a reasonable effort to keep the feet
clean and dry is essential.
(3) Encouraging efforts of soldiers to take appropriate exercises, to avoid
constriction of the extremities by clothing and footgear.
d. The Buddy System. Members of squads and patrols should be taught to
observe their companions for evidence of cold injury. If a part of a soldier's skin
suddenly blanches and someone notices the blanching promptly, immediate care will
usually prevent the development of a more serious cold injury. Holding (not rubbing) a
warm hand on the blanched area of an ear, nose, or cheek until a normal color has
been restored will be adequate rewarming. The part must then be protected against
further serious exposure to cold. Fingers can be warmed against the skin of the
abdomen or the armpit. Toes can be rewarmed by holding them against a companion's
chest or abdomen under that person's outer clothing. A fairly reliable symptom of
incipient frostbite of fingers and toes is the sudden and complete cessation of the
sensation of cold or discomfort in that part. This is often followed by a pleasant feeling
of warmth. If these danger signals are instantly heeded, cold injury can be prevented.
(1) A standard number of layers of clothing cannot be prescribed for
universal wear throughout winter months. Flexibility must be provided for local
conditions. Certain basic principles are important, including the ventilation of the body
during physical activity, the cleanliness and repair of clothing to prevent loss of
insulation, and the avoidance of constriction produced by snug fitting socks, boots,
underwear, sweaters, jackets, and trousers.
(2) In all types of footgear, feet perspire more and are generally less well
ventilated than other parts of the body. Since moisture accumulates in socks,
decreasing their insulating quality, all ground personnel should carry an extra pair of
f. Directives in Use of Clothing.
(1) When working, remove excess layers of clothing before perspiration
starts so that clothing does not become wet. Avoid wetting clothing or footgear, since
moisture causes loss of insulating quality.
(2) Wear clothing and footgear loose enough to permit layers of air to
provide good insulation and to permit good circulation of blood to all parts of the body.
Avoid tight-fitting uniforms; they are dangerous in cold climates.