b. Signs and symptoms of tissue nematodes are as follows:
Ocular disturbances/pain (abnormal visual tolerance of light).
(2) Edema of eyelids (swelling of eyelids; presence of abnormally large
amounts of fluid in the intercellular tissue space of the eyelids).
(3) Subconjunctival and retinal hemorrhage (bleeding from the subjunctival
or retinal areas).
Myalgia (pain in a muscle or muscles).
Urticaria (same as for intestinal nematodes).
a. Intestinal Nematodes. Mebendazole is the drug of choice for whipworm
infection. Do not use this drug in pregnancy. A light whipworm infection, one that
requires stool concentration procedure to detect, does not require treatment. For
hookworm infection, pyrantel pamoate is the drug of choice. For threadworm infection,
the drug of choice is thiabendazole.
b. Tissue Nematodes. Thiabendazole is the drug of choice for trichinosis.
Diethycarbomazine is also used to treat tissue nematodes. When indicated,
symptomatic treatment of nematodes is given: prednisone for otic (ear) disorders,
antihistamines for otic inflammation, corticosteroids for urticaria and rashes, analgesics
for muscle pain.
Section II. TAPEWORM (CESTODE) DISEASES
Tapeworms, cestodes, are elongated, ribbonlike worms which are intestinal
parasites in all classes of vertebrates. Generally, tapeworms have three major parts:
the head, the neck, and a chain of individual segments. The head is unusually small
and is the part of the tapeworm which buries itself in the intestinal mucosa and anchors
the worm. The neck has no segments. The last part of the worm is composed of
individual segments, each of which gets nourishment from the host's intestinal juices by
osmosis. Tapeworm size varies from 2.5 cm to 9 meters (30 feet).