deemed safe by the FDA. In addition to listing newly approved additives, the FDA
removes from the listing those additives whose safety is in doubt due to new data. All
changes in food additive status are published in the Federal Register.
3-28. BURDEN OF PROOF
The burden of proof concerning the safety of food additives now lies with the
organization that wants to use or market the additive. Prior to 1958, the burden was on
the FDA that had to prove that substances were unsafe before preventing their use.
This often took several years and was expensive to the government. Data to support
the safe use of an additive usually requires at least 2 years of feeding tests on two
species of animals. This normally runs into a cost of several thousands of dollars. The
FDA requires that additives appear on the labels of foods.
3-29. LEGITIMATE USES
Some legitimate uses of food additives are to:
a. Maintain the nutritional quality of food.
b. Enhance the keeping quality or stability of foods with resulting reduction in
c. Make food attractive to the consumer in a manner that does not lead to
d. Provide essential aids in food processing.
3-30. ILLEGAL USES
Some of the illegal uses of chemical additives are:
a. Addition of borates in codfish and whole eggs to mask poor manufacturing or
b. Use of chrome yellow on coffee beans to make them appear to be of better
c. Use of copper on canned peas to make the peas appear younger in
d. Addition of fluorine compounds in lieu of pasteurizing in beer and wine to stop
e. Addition of formaldehyde in milk to kill bacteria or in frozen eggs to conceal
the odor of decomposition.