(4) Fats may become oxidized and turn rancid. However, the addition of
antioxidants aids in the prevention of rancidity.
(5) Carbohydrates may undergo some oxidation, producing a browning
reaction. Enzymes involved in this reaction should be inactivated.
(6) When moisture content becomes less than 30 percent, bacteria are
retarded. When moisture is less than 6 percent, molds are retarded.
g. Product Protection. Foods should be stored in moisture proof containers to
prevent dehydration during storage. When foods are put in hermetically sealed
3-16. EXAMPLE OF DRYING
Most of the dried beef manufactured in this country is made from beef hams.
The beef ham is the beef round, which includes the inside, outside, and knuckle cuts of
meat. The beef ham is cured in a common commercial pickle and is then dried. After
the beef is hung in the smokehouse, it is dried in the following manner: first, steam is
turned on for 12 hours to raise the temperature of the meat; second, sawdust fires are
then built, and the internal temperature of the meat is maintained at 132F (56C) for 40
hours; third, the fires are put out, and an internal temperature of 125F (52C) is
maintained for 5 to 10 days by the use of steam coils. After the product is cooled, it is
then sliced and packaged in cellophane or glass containers.
a. Analysis of Dried Beef. The average analysis of dried beef will be about 52
percent moisture, 10 percent salt, 20 to 50 ppm nitrites, and 0.1 percent nitrate.
b. Brine Concentration of Dried Beef. The brine concentration of dried beef
will range from 11 to 16 percent.
3-17. DEHYDRATING FOODS
Dehydration of foods is a very old process and has had wide application in the
preparation of items for the military ration. Charles VI of France, in preparing for the
invasion of England in 1386, accumulated large stores of dehydrated food products,
including dehydrated egg yolks. Dehydrated food has been used as part of the ration
for navies for centuries. General Sherman wrote in his memoirs that during the Atlanta
campaign, his army was supplied with desiccated vegetables, concentrated milk, meat,
biscuits, and sausage. He stated that his men preferred the simpler and more familiar
foods, and they referred to the commissary foods as "desecrated vegetables and
consecrated milk!" The American Expeditionary Force, during World War I, used about
ten million pounds of dehydrated foods, but they were rather unpopular with our troops.
Dehydrated foods were used again during World War II, but, as in World War I, they
were not a desirable component of the military ration.