c. Dimenhydrinate (Dramamine). Dimenhydrinate has been used for many
years in the treatment of motion sickness. The usual side effect associated with the
administration of this agent is drowsiness. The patient taking this medication should be
informed about the drowsiness and that alcohol should not be consumed while taking
this drug. Dimenhydrinate has as its usual dose one tablet two hours before travel, then
one tablet every four hours as needed for nausea and vomiting. Dramamine is
supplied as a 50 milligram tablet.
d. Meclizine (Bonine). Meclizine is an antiemetic normally used in the
treatment of motion sickness. It is frequently prescribed for vertigo; hence, one
company's trade name for meclizine is Antivert. Drowsiness is the most prominent
side effect associated with this product. You should inform the patient of this side effect
when you dispense it. Likewise, you should tell the patient that meclizine should not be
taken with alcohol. The usual dose for motion sickness is 25 to 50 milligrams one hour
before travel. This dose may be taken every 24 hours if necessary. In the treatment of
vertigo (dizziness), the recommended dose is 25 to 100 milligrams per day in divided
doses. Bonine is supplied as 25 milligram chewable tablets, while Antivert is
available in 12.5 and 25 milligram tablets.
Section IV. ANTIDIARRHEALS
Antidiarrheals are agents used to control diarrhea. Antidiarrheals are indicated in
patients who have severe diarrhea. Antidiarrheals not only can make life more pleasant
for persons so afflicted, they can really prevent the body from losing a great volume of
EXAMPLES OF ANTIDIARRHEAL AGENTS
a. Attapulgite (Kaopectate). It is used for its adsorbent and protectant action.
This product is effective for minor diarrhea. The usual dose of Kaopectate is two to
four tablespoonsful after each loose bowel movement.
b. Paregoric. The active ingredient in paregoric is its morphine component.
This morphine component is helpful in treating diarrhea because it reduces the intestinal
motility and digestive secretions. The result is that the movement of the stool through
the small and large intestines is slowed. This effect allows more water to be absorbed
out of the stool. This helps produce a stool of a more solid mass. Furthermore,
paregoric causes the tone of the anal sphincter to be increased and this, combined with
the dulling of the sensation to defecate aids in the constipating effect of the drug. The
patient taking paregoric should be cautioned against taking the drug with alcohol or any
other central nervous system (CNS) depressant. Furthermore, the patient should be
informed that the product can cause drowsiness. The usual dosage of paregoric is 5 to
10 milliliters (one to two teaspoon(s)full four times a day. Paregoric is supplied as a
liquid. It is a Note Q item.