Various combinations of dextrose and sodium chloride are available. For
example, 5% Dextrose in 0.45% Sodium Chloride Injection, and
2.5% Dextrose in 0.9% Sodium Chloride Injection.
ELECTROLYTE REPLACEMENT SOLUTIONS
a. Use. Electrolyte replacement solutions provide both electrolytes (like sodium,
potassium, etc.) and fluid to the patient. Special electrolyte replacement solutions can
be prepared in order to meet the needs of particular patients.
b. Examples of Electrolyte Replacement Solutions. Below are only two of
the solutions commonly used to replace electrolytes.
(1) Lactated Ringer's Injection (LR. Ringer's Lactate, RL, Hartmann's
Solution). This product is a solution of electrolytes in water. This product contains
sodium, potassium, calcium, chloride, and lactate ions. The lactate ion in the product
has an alkalizing effect and is metabolized in the liver to glycogen and ends up as
carbon dioxide and water. Lactated Ringer's Injection is used as a fluid replacement
and as an electrolyte replacement.
(2) Lactated Ringer's Injection with 5% Dextrose (D5RL). This product is a
combination of Lactated Ringer's Injection and 5% Dextrose Injection. The dextrose
supplies 170 calories per 1,000 milliliters of solution. D5RL is used as a fluid
replacement, electrolyte replacement, and as a source of energy.
Other combination products are available.
a. Use. Plasma expanders are used to treat or prevent acute and severe fluid
loss due to trauma or surgery. These products are usually used instead of whole blood
in emergency situations in which whole blood is not available.
b. Examples of Plasma Expanders.
(1) Normal human serum albumin. Normal human serum albumin is a
fraction of whole blood. It is a clear, moderately viscous, brownish fluid which contains
25 grams of serum albumin in 100 milliliters of product. Because each gram of albumin
holds approximately 18 milliliters of water, it is used as blood volume expander in the
treatment of hemorrhage or shock. In this use, the albumin draws fluid into the
circulatory system from the surrounding tissues. This product has also been used as a
protein replacement in cases where the level of protein in the serum is very low (e.g., in
nephrosis). Normal human serum albumin should not be given to dehydrated patients
since it draws fluid from the body tissues. If necessary, the product may be
administered to dehydrated patients if 0.9% Sodium Chloride Injection or 5% Dextrose