(1) Severe itching at the point of penetration made by the larvae. This is
called "ground itch."
(2) Mild pneumonia with sore throat, cough; and blood in the sputum.
These signs and symptoms are caused by the migration of the larvae.
(3) Intestinal pain, enteritis, anemia, and weakness (caused by the blood
sucking of the adult worms) when there are many worms present.
(4) Weight loss, slight anemia and slight loss of strength when there are a
few worms present for a long time.
f. Necator americanus (pronounced Ne-KAY-tur ah-MERR-I-KAY-nus).
Necator americanus is commonly referred to as the New World hookworm. This
parasite is found in the United States, Asia, the South Pacific, and Africa. The life cycle
for this organism is very similar to that of Ancylostoma duodenale (the Old World
hookworm). Likewise, the signs and symptoms of infestation are the same as the Old
g. Strongyloides stercoralis (pronounced STRON-ji-LOY-dez STUR-ko-RAY-
lis). Strongyloides stercoralis is commonly referred to as the threadworm. This parasite
is found worldwide--especially in warm climates. Humans are the main hosts of this
parasite. The parasitic female is from 2 to 3mm. There are free-living forms of this
organism, depending on the environmental conditions (for example, moist, warm soil).
Strongyloides stercoralis larvae invade the skin in much the same way as do the
hookworms. Then the larvae migrate through the body until they reach the small
intestine. The signs and symptoms associated with Strongyloides stercoralis include
itchy, red patches on the skin at the site of penetration, bronchial pneumonia (because
of movement of the larvae through the lungs), abdominal pain, diarrhea, constipation,
vomiting and weight loss (when the parasites are in the intestines), and death (in some
persons who are immunosuppressed due to heavy reinfection and migration of the
h. Taenia saginata (pronounced TEE-nee-uh sadj-I-NAT-tuh). This parasite is
commonly referred to as the beef tapeworm. Taenia saginata is found in beef eating
countries. The adults of this organism live in the small intestine. They are made up of
segments (proglottids) and range from 2 to 10 meters in length. Infestation of this
organism occurs in poorly cooked meat. In many cases, the tapeworm infestation goes
unnoticed by the host until a proglottid is passed in the feces and observed by the host.
With heavy infestations, weight loss, diarrhea, and abdominal pain can occur.