Quantcast Cracking of Emulsions - Compounding and Manufacturing

Share on Google+Share on FacebookShare on LinkedInShare on TwitterShare on DiggShare on Stumble Upon
Custom Search
 
  
 
4-7.
CRACKING OF EMULSIONS
a. When an emulsion separates into its separate ingredients (when the oil and
water are clearly separated and will not recombine) the emulsion is said to have
"cracked" or "broken." Do not confuse a "cracked" emulsion with one that has creamed!
Creaming is a natural occurrence with most emulsions and simple shaking will restore
the uniformity of the preparation. However, no amount of shaking will restore the
cracked emulsion to its original state.
b. The most common reason that an emulsion cracks is the addition of too much
or too concentrated alcohol or electrolyte solution. Freezing will also cause an emulsion
to crack.
4-8.
DISPENSING AN EMULSION
a. Container. Emulsions of thick consistency should be dispensed in a
wide-mouthed bottle or jar. The very thin emulsions may be dispensed in ordinary
prescription bottles, if they will not become thicker as the emulsifier hydrates on
standing. Thick emulsions cannot be conveniently poured from narrow-mouthed
bottles. Clear bottles are generally preferred to amber ones, unless their contents are
sensitive to light.
b. Special Instructions. All emulsions are damaged by excessive heat or cold.
Patients should be instructed to store emulsions away from either extreme. Emulsions
for internal use should be stored in the refrigerator, but they should be protected from
freezing. All emulsions should bear the "Shake Well Before Using" label. Those for
external use should be so labeled.
Section II. SUSPENSIONS
4-9.
INTRODUCTION
Both emulsions and suspensions are types of dispersions. Suspensions are
liquid preparations that contain a finely divided dispersed solid. They are quite closely
related to emulsions except that their internal phase is a solid rather than another liquid.
If the particle size is less than 0.1 micrometer, where a micron is a millionth of a meter,
we say that we have a colloid, not a suspension. Suspensions are usually intended for
external use, oral administration, or injection. The tendency of suspensions to settle out
makes them slightly less desirable as a dosage form than solutions; the solid particles
agglomerate and settle to the bottom, leaving the liquid phase supernatant. It is quite
possible to prepare a suspension that will not settle appreciably for several months. In
the pharmacy, this should be the goal for every suspension prepared: to lengthen the
settling time as much as possible. The absolute minimum requirement of settling time is
a rate slow enough to allow the medication to be shaken and a dose to be removed
from the container that will be uniform in content each time.
MD0809
4-6



Medical News
AHA: Many US adults taking action to reduce sodium intake
(HealthDay)—Many U.S. adults are taking action to reduce sodium intake,...
medicalxpress.com
A young child, a falling cabinet, and a Life Flight rescue
Life in the air rescue business is highly unpredictable. You...
scopeblog.stanford.edu
HPV-16 tied to improved survival in advanced esophageal cancer
(HealthDay)—For patients with advanced-stage esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC), human...
medicalxpress.com
Nurse follow-up by phone cuts problems post orthopedic Sx
(HealthDay)—A program of phone follow-up by nurses can reduce problems...
medicalxpress.com
Aerobic fitness can predict post-op complications in AAA repair
(HealthDay)—For patients undergoing elective abdominal aortic aneurysm repair, measures of...
medicalxpress.com
Marijuana an inescapable issue for health chiefs, say experts
Marijuana will become an unavoidable policy issue for health watchdogs...
medicalxpress.com
Anemia linked to adverse outcomes in atrial fibrillation
(HealthDay)—For patients with atrial fibrillation receiving anticoagulant treatment, the presence...
medicalxpress.com
Common antidepressant may hold the key to heart failure reversal
A team led by researchers at Temple University School of...
medicalxpress.com
Wound leak critical complication post open globe repair
(HealthDay)—Postoperative wound leak affects a substantial proportion of eyes following...
medicalxpress.com
14 percent of toddlers may be drinking coffee
(HealthDay)—Although they may just be learning how to say the...
medicalxpress.com
STS releases outcomes for congenital heart Sx database
(HealthDay)—The Society of Thoracic Surgeons (STS) has released the first...
medicalxpress.com
Heroin overdose deaths quadrupled since 2000
(HealthDay)—Heroin overdose deaths have skyrocketed in recent years, quadrupling since...
medicalxpress.com
Infant gut bacteria and food sensitization: Associations in the first year of life
A new study from Canadian researchers at the University of...
medicalxpress.com
Cell powerhouse sequencing technology provides deeper look at inherited disease risk
A new sequencing technique may provide a clearer picture of...
medicalxpress.com
Defined by your possessions? How loving parents unintentionally foster materialism in their children
Can loving and supportive parents unintentionally encourage their children to...
medicalxpress.com
Mental health soon after war-zone concussions predicts disability
Evaluating military personnel with blast-related mild traumatic brain injuries, researchers...
medicalxpress.com
Using fruit flies to understand how we sense hot and cold
Innately, we pull our hand away when we touch a...
medicalxpress.com
Combo Regimens Active in Advanced Kidney Cancer
(MedPage Today) -- Highlights from kidney cancer studies presented at...
medpagetoday.com
ENDO Examines Cost of Endocrine-Disrupting Chemicals
(MedPage Today) -- Group moves its annual meeting to March...
medpagetoday.com
DR Congo cholera cases top 1,500, 35 dead: UN
A cholera outbreak in the Democratic Republic of Congo has...
medicalxpress.com
 


Privacy Statement - Copyright Information. - Contact Us

comments powered by Disqus

Integrated Publishing, Inc.
9438 US Hwy 19N #311 Port Richey, FL 34668

Phone For Parts Inquiries: (727) 755-3260
Google +