Quantcast Cracking of Emulsions - Compounding and Manufacturing

Share on Google+Share on FacebookShare on LinkedInShare on TwitterShare on DiggShare on Stumble Upon
Custom Search
 
  
 
4-7.
CRACKING OF EMULSIONS
a. When an emulsion separates into its separate ingredients (when the oil and
water are clearly separated and will not recombine) the emulsion is said to have
"cracked" or "broken." Do not confuse a "cracked" emulsion with one that has creamed!
Creaming is a natural occurrence with most emulsions and simple shaking will restore
the uniformity of the preparation. However, no amount of shaking will restore the
cracked emulsion to its original state.
b. The most common reason that an emulsion cracks is the addition of too much
or too concentrated alcohol or electrolyte solution. Freezing will also cause an emulsion
to crack.
4-8.
DISPENSING AN EMULSION
a. Container. Emulsions of thick consistency should be dispensed in a
wide-mouthed bottle or jar. The very thin emulsions may be dispensed in ordinary
prescription bottles, if they will not become thicker as the emulsifier hydrates on
standing. Thick emulsions cannot be conveniently poured from narrow-mouthed
bottles. Clear bottles are generally preferred to amber ones, unless their contents are
sensitive to light.
b. Special Instructions. All emulsions are damaged by excessive heat or cold.
Patients should be instructed to store emulsions away from either extreme. Emulsions
for internal use should be stored in the refrigerator, but they should be protected from
freezing. All emulsions should bear the "Shake Well Before Using" label. Those for
external use should be so labeled.
Section II. SUSPENSIONS
4-9.
INTRODUCTION
Both emulsions and suspensions are types of dispersions. Suspensions are
liquid preparations that contain a finely divided dispersed solid. They are quite closely
related to emulsions except that their internal phase is a solid rather than another liquid.
If the particle size is less than 0.1 micrometer, where a micron is a millionth of a meter,
we say that we have a colloid, not a suspension. Suspensions are usually intended for
external use, oral administration, or injection. The tendency of suspensions to settle out
makes them slightly less desirable as a dosage form than solutions; the solid particles
agglomerate and settle to the bottom, leaving the liquid phase supernatant. It is quite
possible to prepare a suspension that will not settle appreciably for several months. In
the pharmacy, this should be the goal for every suspension prepared: to lengthen the
settling time as much as possible. The absolute minimum requirement of settling time is
a rate slow enough to allow the medication to be shaken and a dose to be removed
from the container that will be uniform in content each time.
MD0809
4-6



Medical News
Spontaneous mutations in key brain gene are a cause of autism
Spontaneous mutations in the brain gene TBR1 disrupt the function...
medicalxpress.com
'Baby Buddy' app to support expectant and new parents seeks user feedback
The child health and wellbeing charity Best Beginnings is inviting...
medicalxpress.com
Putting dementia carers in control
Experts will explore how improved support and powers for people...
medicalxpress.com
Non-stop PET/CT scan provides accurate images
Siemens is improving PET/CT imaging and data quality while reducing...
medicalxpress.com
Researchers corroborate the neuroprotective effects of Sirtuin 1 activation on mice with Alzheimer's disease
A study coordinated by the University of Barcelona (UB) has...
medicalxpress.com
Swatting chikungunya
Summer days may be waning, but health officials are still...
medicalxpress.com
Bacterial infection models provide clues potentially useful for controlling gastric ailments
(Medical Xpress)—Scientists from the Virginia Bioinformatics Institute at Virginia Tech...
medicalxpress.com
Sierra Leone readies for controversial Ebola lockdown
Sierra Leone prepared Thursday for an unprecedented three-day nationwide lockdown...
medicalxpress.com
Researcher says airborne Ebola transmission is not an impossibility
The idea of the Ebola virus becoming airborne is not...
medicalxpress.com
Computational drug design yields cocaine toxicity treatment
(Medical Xpress)—A researcher at the University of Kentucky College of...
medicalxpress.com
Nepal adopts jab to boost polio fight
Nepal on Thursday launched a drive to eradicate polio by...
medicalxpress.com
Declining condom use driving sexually transmitted infections
A fall in condom use across the population is driving...
medicalxpress.com
Gel-like padding could help cells survive injection, heal spinal cord injuries
(Medical Xpress)—A team of Bio-X scientists is developing a gel...
medicalxpress.com
An update on bacterial meningitis and other important vaccine news
With school underway and flu season not far behind, vaccinations...
medicalxpress.com
Report reveals dangerous gap in understanding of hepatitis C transmission
A wide-ranging report by UNSW's Centre for Social Research in...
medicalxpress.com
Immune link to stress could help in treating depression
Researchers at the University of Adelaide say a new focus...
medicalxpress.com
Magnets help cure chronic acid reflux
Magnets are helping Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center pediatric nephrologist...
medicalxpress.com
Stem cells have potential to repair diseased corneas
Corneal transplant (keratoplasty) is a known means of successfully treating...
medicalxpress.com
Rosuvastatin treatments particularly effective among prediabetic patients
Cardiovascular disease is the leading causes of death worldwide and...
medicalxpress.com
Middle school dilemma: Girls' body image affected by older peers
The media is highly criticized for contributing to body image...
medicalxpress.com
 


Privacy Statement - Copyright Information. - Contact Us

comments powered by Disqus

Integrated Publishing, Inc.
9438 US Hwy 19N #311 Port Richey, FL 34668

Phone For Parts Inquiries: (727) 755-3260
Google +