Figure 1-4. Reading the graduate.
A type of plastic graduate that produces no meniscus is available at some
installations. The graduate must still be held at eye level for readings.
(5) Emptying the graduate. After accurately measuring the liquid, pour it
into the appropriate container or mixing vessel. Allow sufficient time for it to drain. This
is especially important with viscous liquids such as syrup and glycerin. Clean the
graduate as soon as possible after use. Graduates washed immediately after use or
put to soak with a detergent are easier to clean than those on which the substance has
dried and hardened are. The most important reason for immediate cleaning is to have
the graduate available for immediate reuse.
Section III. HEAT
There are many applications for the use of heat in the pharmacy. Many pieces of
equipment are available to produce, distribute, and regulate this heat.
a. Types of Gas Burners. Gas is the most frequently used source of heat in
small-scale manufacturing. The Fisher and Bunsen burners are two types of gas-
utilizing apparatus available to your pharmacy section (see figure 1-5). The Fisher
burner produces higher temperatures and is easier to operate under normal
circumstances. In bulk compounding, the Fisher burner will save you a considerable
amount of time because it will heat large volumes of material much faster than the