6. The HIV contains a unique enzyme that enables the viruses to make ____ copies of its
___. This enzyme, commonly referred to as r__e t___ase, is an RNA-dependent
DNA polymerase that catalyzes the reverse flow of g____c information from RNA
to DNA. Once the DNA is made, these viruses use other e___s to insert, or
integrate, the DNA copies of their genes into the ch______l DNA of the host cell.
Insertion having been accomplished, the proviral DNA genes become a part of the
genes of the h__t cell. Once present in the c_________ar DNA, retrovirus
"proviral" genes may be: (1) nonfunctional or s___t, (2) p_____ly transcribed with
subsequent expression of individual viral p___s within the cell or on its surface, or
(3) fully tr___d to produce new viral RNA genes that are encapsulated in viral
structural pr____s to form new virus particles. These new virons may then i____t
any cell they contact.
The HIV is cytopathic for many of the l____ytes in which the virus actively replicates.
The primary targets for HIV are the T4 h___r lymphocytes. However, other cells
may become infected; these other cells include the m___cytes, m___ges, _
lymphocytes, dendritic reticular cells, and some glial and endo___-l cells in the
brain may become infected.
The HIV virus destroys many of the body's T4 h__r cells. The infected T4 cells
that are not destroyed are functionally de__ve. The infected monocytes appear to
be nonf______l. The virus appears to stimulate all B cells into producing
a______s, thereby, leaving no unstimulated B cells available to respond to new
ELISA or EIA procedures are the most widely used s___ing tests for HIV. These
procedures test for a____s formed against various proteins or glycoproteins from
HIV. There are new procedures available now to test directly for HIV a____ns.
This allows for e__r and more d___ve detection of the disease. The procedure,
which is presently used for confirmation of positive screening tests (ELISA, EIA), is
the Western b_t.
Viral hepatitis has been recognized by the medical community for almost two
decades) (centuries) and remains a disease of major significance in the world
today. It is an infection which results in inflammation of the liver caused by one of
at least (2) (3) (4) distinct viral agents. The diagnosis of acute viral hepatitis
sometimes can be made on the basis of c___l features and history that suggest a
particular c_____ve agent. In most cases and due to recent immunological
advances, specific tests exist which accurately d___t, d____e, and m___r the
progression of hepatitis.