EXERCISES, LESSON 1
INSTRUCTIONS: Answer the following items by completing the statement or by writing
the answer in the space provided.
After you have completed all of these items, turn to "Solutions to Exercises" at the
end of the lesson and check your answers with the solutions.
Immunity is defined as the p_____l, c_____l, and c_____r defense against
a____s. Immunity also refers to specific activities of certain body cells and/or
chemical constituents of body fluids that aid in the body's d_____e.
There are two types of immunity: i____e and a____d. In innate immunity, the
disease-resisting ability is a result of one's g____c makeup, and not acquired by
exposure to infectious agents. In contrast, acquired immunity develops
(before)(after) birth and as a result of contact with a f_____ substance.
Innate immunity is also known as n_____l immunity or ____ted immunity. Innate
immunity refers to that type of resistance which each individual has by virtue of
being the individual he or she is in g_____ terms, such as species and other
factors. Natural immunity is commonly thought of as a non_____c barrier that is
effective against many different kinds of infectious agents.
Acquired immunity is the type of immunity which an individual develops during a
_____time. It is a_____n sp_____c and may be based on a_____ies or may be
c_____l-mediated in origin and more closely associated with the activities of
macro____s and T l____tes. This form of immunity is subdivided into that which is
a____ly acquired and that which is p____ly acquired. In active immunity, the
individual s_____sizes his or her own antibodies. In passive immunity, the
individual receives antibodies from some other i_____al. Both active and passive
immunity are subdivided into two categories, depending on whether the immunity
is acquired by n_____l or art___l means.
Active immunity refers to that type of immunity in which production of significant
amounts of antibody occurs about 7 to 14 _____s after initial exposure to antigen.
____ve immunity may be n____ly acquired either by having a subclinical infection
with a particular microorganism or by actually having the disease.
The immunity resulting from the injection of a vaccine or toxoid is said to be a___ly
a____d a____e i____y. Killed and attenuated strains of bacteria and viruses now
are widely used forms of immunization against many diseases; for example,
t____sis, m___s, p___myelitis, y___w fever, and me___s. Artificially acquired
active immunity against tetanus and diphtheria is created by the injection of t___s,
which are de__ed but still an____ly active poisons excreted by bacteria.