Quantcast
Primary and Secondary Immune Responses - Immunohematology and Blood Banking II

Share on Google+Share on FacebookShare on LinkedInShare on TwitterShare on DiggShare on Stumble Upon
Custom Search
 
  
 
d. B-Lymphocytes. The B-lymphocyte gets its name from the Bursa of
Fabricius, a lymphoid organ present in birds, which controls the production of
lymphocytes responsible for making humoral antibody. The equivalent organ in man has
yet to be found. Thymus-independent, or B-lymphocytes synthesize and excrete
specific antibodies (surface immunoglobulins) that serve as receptors for antigens.
When triggered by antigen, the B-lymphocytes change to plasma cells, which are
responsible for the excretion of free antibody into the body fluids (for example, humoral
antibody), see figure 1-1. There is much evidence to suggest that macrophages are
required to process antigens for appropriate presentation to lymphocytes before the
humoral response occurs. In addition, many antigens appear to require the cooperation
of both B- and T-lymphocytes. The mechanisms by which T- and B-lymphocytes
interact are complex and far from clear at present. As mentioned previously, it is
humoral antibodies that are dealt with routinely in blood transfusion science, but
possibly cellular reactions will increase in importance in the future.
e. Differentiation of T- and B-Lymphocytes. Approximately 25 percent of
human blood lymphocytes are B cells, 70 percent T cells, and 5 percent have neither T
nor B markers (they are called "null cells"). Immunoglobulins are readily demonstrable
on B, but not T-lymphocytes by immunofluorescence. T- but not B-lymphocytes will
form "spontaneous" rosettes with unsensitized sheep erythrocytes.
1-5.
PRIMARY AND SECONDARY IMMUNE RESPONSES
a. Following a first exposure to a foreign antigen, specific antibodies can appear
after about five days, rise slowly to a modest level, remain for a variable period, then
gradually decline, eventually becoming undetectable, until further stimulation occurs.
The first antibodies produced in this primary response are usually lgM, but eventually
other immunoglobulins (for example, lgG) may appear. The type of antigen and the
route of administration will influence the pattern observed.
b. After the primary response, a second dose of the same antigen, given days or
even years later, will usually elicit an intense and accelerated secondary (memory)
response. The serum antibody usually begins to rise within two or three days, reaching
a peak in about 10 days. In this secondary response, lgM antibody is often transiently
produced, following a similar pattern to the primary response, but the predominant
antibody produced is lgG, which rises to a much greater concentration than the lgM, and
remains in the plasma much longer. The secondary response is sometimes called an
anamnestic response.
MD0846
1-6



Medical News
Researchers trace HIV adaptation to its human host
"Much research has focused on how HIV adapts to antiviral...
medicalxpress.com
Many patients who could benefit from home dialysis are receiving care in dialysis centers
Many kidney failure patients in Australia who could benefit from...
medicalxpress.com
Muscle mass linked with physical function and quality of life in dialysis patients
Dialysis patients with more muscle mass had better scores on...
medicalxpress.com
Low-dose natural antimicrobial exacerbates chronic lung infection in cystic fibrosis
Respiratory failure caused by chronic lung infection with Pseudomonas aeruginosa...
medicalxpress.com
Bearded dragons seen as salmonella source
Bearded dragons have joined the list of pets that can...
medicalxpress.com
Controlling brain waves to improve vision
Have you ever accidentally missed a red light or a...
medicalxpress.com
What makes psychotic teens more at risk for suicide than other groups with psychosis?
Suicide is a general risk for people with psychosis. According...
medicalxpress.com
FDA: DNA Test Can Replace Pap Test
WASHINGTON (MedPage Today) -- The FDA has approved a molecular...
medpagetoday.com
Genetic alterations in shared biological pathways as major risk factor for ASD
A substantial proportion of risk for developing autism spectrum disorders...
medicalxpress.com
FDA to Ban E-Cigarette Sales to Minors (CME/CE)
(MedPage Today) -- Electronic cigarettes will finally be regulated nationally...
medpagetoday.com
In 2015, Most States to Use Healthcare.gov
(MedPage Today) -- Only two of the 36 states that...
medpagetoday.com
New guidelines aim to improve care for babies with heart problems in the womb
Fetal heart experts working with the American Heart Association have...
medicalxpress.com
US Oks first-ever DNA alternative to pap smear
Federal health regulators have cleared a genetic test from Roche...
medicalxpress.com
Study suggests targeting B cells may help with MS
A new study suggests that targeting B cells, which are...
medicalxpress.com
Striking a Nerve: Docs Flunk Diagnostics Math
(MedPage Today) -- Most residents and many attending physicians at...
medpagetoday.com
An advancement in optogenetics: Switching off cells with light now as easy as switching them on
Earlier this week, the New York Times featured Karl Deisseroth,...
scopeblog.stanford.edu
Stroke Rounds: Speeding tPA Use, Assuming Consent (CME/CE)
(MedPage Today) -- This week, JAMA released a theme issue...
medpagetoday.com
Autism Genome Project delivers genetic discovery
A new study from investigators with the Autism Genome Project,...
medicalxpress.com
CardioBuzz: Is Marijuana Bad for Your Heart?
(MedPage Today) -- Whether marijuana actually causes cardiovascular problems remains...
medpagetoday.com
You may have billions and billions of good reasons for being unfit
Although our chromosomes are relatively stable within our lifetimes, the...
medicalxpress.com
   


Privacy Statement - Copyright Information. - Contact Us

comments powered by Disqus

Integrated Publishing, Inc.
9438 US Hwy 19N #311 Port Richey, FL 34668

Phone For Parts Inquiries: (727) 755-3260
Google +