Figure 6-3. Anatomy of the skull.
(2) Inspect the eyes for symmetry, movement, and the condition of the pupils,
iris, and sclera. Ask the patient to look up as you depress both lower lids with your
thumbs, exposing the sclera and palpebral conjunctiva (lining of inner surface of the
eyelids). See figure 6-4. Note the color and vascular pattern against the white
background of the sclera. An apparently yellow sclera indicates jaundice. Pale palpebral
conjunctiva may indicate anemia. Look for nodules or swelling. The pupils and iris are
assessed together. Examine the pupils for color, shape, equality, reaction to light, and
accommodation. The pupils are normally black in color, round, and equal. If the pupil
Figure 6-4. Exposing sclera and conjuctiva.