Surgical intervention often alters physical appearance and normal physiological
functions and may threaten the patients psychological security. Any or all of these may
lead to alterations in the patient's self-concept and body image. Some surgical patients
react to the loss of a body part as to a death. Be aware of the patient's needs and
establish interventions that will support his strengths and effective coping skills. The
nursing process is used throughout the perioperative period to provide the patient with
individualized care and the knowledge and ability for self-care following disposition.