2-15. PREGNANCY URINE TEST
Most pregnancy tests are based on the fact that the hormone human chorionic
gonadotropin (HCG) is secreted by the chorionic villi of the placenta. This hormone can
be detected in small amounts in both the urine and the blood of a pregnant woman by
the 15th day of pregnancy. Urine tests are available for home use and offer quick
results with 90 percent to 95 percent accuracy.
a. Supplies and Equipment. Only a urine specimen cup is required.
(1) Instruct the patient to void the very first urine when she gets up in the
morning into the specimen cup.
(2) Label the specimen cup with the patient's identifying information,
complete a laboratory request form (Chemistry I, SF 546) requesting an HCG test and
send both to the lab.
(3) Only the physician or a registered nurse should tell the patient the
results of the test.
2-16. BLOOD CULTURES
Blood cultures are done to identify a disease-causing organism, especially in
patients who have an elevated temperature for an unknown reason. Drawing blood
from HIV positive patients is done in accordance with the hospital or clinic's
local policy (see universal precautions).
2-17. SUPPLIES AND EQUIPMENT
Supplies and equipment required for a blood culture are
a. Sterile syringe (20 cc) and three needles (usually 20 gauge).
b. Two blood culture bottles (one for anaerobic and one for aerobic specimens).
c. Betadine solution.
d. Sterile cotton balls or gauze pads.