7-10. TYPES OF LEARNING
a. Three domains, or types of learning, have been identified as cognitive, affective,
(1) The cognitive domain includes intellectual skills such as thinking, knowing,
and understanding. When the patient stores and recalls information, he is using the
cognitive domain. For example, after attending classes on the low sodium diet a patient
states how salt affects the blood pressure.
(2) The affective domain includes feelings, emotions, interests, attitudes, and
appreciations. An example would be a patient's acceptance of having a colostomy and
maintaining his self-esteem.
(3) The psychomotor domain involves motor skills. An example would be a
patient demonstrating clean technique when changing her dressing.
b. Nurses should include each of these three domains in patient teaching plans
(see paragraph 7-7a(2)).
7-11. SELECTING TEACHING STRATEGIES
a. Consider the different teaching strategies during the planning stage and choose
a method of teaching that is suited to the individual being taught, for the material to be
learned, and for you, the teacher.
b. Consider the content and the types of learning. The content to be taught is
determined by the objectives. For example, when teaching self-care to a recently
diagnosed diabetic, one of the objectives may be "Identify appropriate sites for insulin
injections." This means that you must include content about body sites suitable for insulin
injections. You should have some knowledge of sources for content information as a
result of your own education and training.
c. Consider the following in matching sources of content information with a
suitable strategy for the individual learner and for you, the nurse-teacher:
(1) A person who cannot read needs a source of content material in other than
printed form. Use of games and role-play are popular and fun ways for children to learn.
(2) Discussion is not the best strategy for teaching a psychomotor skill.
Demonstration of techniques using a practice model is an effective way of teaching
someone to give an injection.
(3) Some people are visually oriented and learn best through seeing. Others
learn best through hearing; an explanation or one-on-one discussion may be the most