(1) Encourage physical and emotional rest by using relaxation techniques
and prescribed medications (such as sedatives and tranquilizers) to reduce anxiety,
restlessness, and insomnia.
(2) Practice prophylaxis (prevention) by use of antacids and avoidance of
irritants such as aspirin, alcohol, caffeine, and spicy foods.
(3) Dietary management aids in control of pain and prevention of ulcers.
Meals should be frequent, regular, and small to moderate in size. Foods not well
tolerated should be eliminated. Daily intake should be of sufficient caloric and nutritive
value to maintain health.
(4) When ulceration is in the acute stage, diet should be modified to consist
of bland, low-fiber, non-gas-producing foods. Foods that are mechanically, chemically,
and thermally nonirritating to the stomach.
e. Observe for signs and symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, blood in emesis
or stool, abdominal rigidity, or abdominal pain. These symptoms may indicate the
presence of bleeding, rupture, or obstruction at the ulcer site.
a. Definition. Appendicitis is the inflammation of the vermiform appendix. The
appendix fills with food and empties regularly. Because its lumen is quite small, it
empties irregularly and is prone to obstruction. The obstruction sets off an inflammatory
process that may lead to infection, necrosis, and perforation.
b. Signs and Symptoms.
Generalized abdominal pain that localizes in the right lower quadrant.
Nausea and vomiting.
Elevated white blood cell count.
c. Nursing Implications.
Administer IV fluids as ordered to maintain hydration.